ارزیابی اثرات زیست‌محیطی خزش شهری در روند توسعه شهر (مطالعه موردی: شهر رشت)

نوع مقاله : مقاله استخراج از رساله و پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

3 استاد گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

10.22080/usfs.2021.3117

چکیده

رشد جمعیت شهرهای ایران بعد از انقلاب اسلامی با افزایش چشمگیری مواجه شد و این افزایش در طی دو دهه اخیر به حدی بوده است که شهرها با شیوه‌های مختلفی رشد و تکامل یافتند. یکی از مسائل حائز اهمیت در این ارتباط، توسعه بی‌رویه فیزیکی شهرهاست که با تراکم پایین و به‌صورت پراکنده اتفاق افتاده و به مشخصه ظاهری بسیاری از شهرها در جهان تبدیل شده ‌است. این مسئله امروزه به شکل خزش شهری نمود پیدا کرده و موضوع بسیاری از پژوهش‌ها قرار گرفته است. شهر رشت نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نیست و به دلیل چندنقشی بودن آن در سطح منطقه و استان، در مقایسه با سایر شهرها رشد کالبدی نامناسبی را شاهد بوده است که مهم‌ترین ویژگی آن خزش شهر به سمت و سوی سطح اراضی پیرامون محدوده قانونی شهر بوده است. بر این اساس، هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، ارزیابی اثرات زیست‌محیطی خزش شهر رشت در روند توسعۀ زمانی‌ـ فضایی است. در تحقیق حاضر، برای ارزیابی اثرات زیست‌محیطی خزش شهری در شهر رشت، از روش ماتریس ارزیابی اثرات سریع (RIAM) استفاده شده ‌است که به منظور ثبت اثرات ناشی از احداث ساخت و سازهای مسکونی و غیرمسکونی بر چهار محیط فیزیکی‌ـ شیمیایی، اکولوژیکی‌ـ بیولوژیکی، اجتماعی‌ـ فرهنگی و اقتصادی‌ـ فنی استفاده شد. در ادامه 26 عامل در چهار محیط مذکور انتخاب شد و با استفاده از ماتریس RIAM، اثرات این عوامل بر خزش شهری شناسایی شد. تحلیل ماتریس RIAM نشان داد که 87/83 درصد از عوامل دارای اثرات منفی و تنها 13/16 درصد دارای اثرات مثبت بودند. بر این اساس، توریسم، فعالیت‌های کشاورزی، تنوع زیستی، فون و گونه‌های جانوری و آلودگی آب‌های سطحی بیشترین اثرات منفی را بر خزش شهری دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Urban Sprawl in the Urban Development Trend (Case study: Rasht city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nima Hajati Ziabari 1
  • Rasoul Samadzadeh 2
  • Hossein Nazmfar 3
1 PhD Candidate of Geography, University of Islamic Azad, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Geography, University of Islamic Azad, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran
3 Professor of Geography, University of Islamic Azad, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Population growth in Iranian cities has increased dramatically since the Islamic Revolution, and this growth has been such that over the last two decades cities have evolved in a variety of ways: horizontal growth, vertical growth, urban sprawl, and suburbia. The city of Rasht has not been exception from the rule, and due to its role in the region and province, compared to other cities in the region, Rasht has seen poor physical growth. The most important feature of this growth was the sprawl of the city towards and around the legal boundaries of the city. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of the city’s sprawl on the spatio-temporal development process. This applied research with a descriptive-analytical approach focused on documentary and field data and used the Quantitative Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) model. The results show that various indices such as abandonment of wasteland, expansion of informal housing, housing cooperatives, integration of suburban villages, and urban development plans have contributed to the unbalanced spatial development of Rasht. RIAM matrix analysis showed that 83.87% of the area around Rasht had negative environmental effects resulting from urban sprawl and only 16.13% of environmental components had positive environmental effects

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical Development
  • Urban Sprawl
  • RIAM Matrix
  • Environmental consequences
  • Rasht
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