چهارچوب مفهومی و معیارهای حکمروایی بناهای مسکونی بلندمرتبه در ایران

نوع مقاله : علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی کار شناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

10.22080/usfs.2022.23438.2249

چکیده

بهره‌برداری از بناهای مسکونی بلندمرتبه در ایران، به روش مشارکتی کارآمد و با استفاده از الگوهای حکمروایی مطلوب انجام نمی‌گیرد. مدیریت این بناها در این کشور بر مبنای «قانون تملک آپارتمان‌ها» و آیین‌نامۀ اجرایی آن و «رویکرد اداری» انجام می‌پذیرد. ازاین‌رو چهارچوب مفهومی و معیارهای مشخصی برای ارزیابی، برنامه‌ریزی و توسعۀ حکمروایی مشارکتی این بناها در ایران وجود ندارد. این مقاله در پاسخ به این سؤال تدوین شد که چهارچوب مفهومی و معیارهای کاربردی مناسب برای تحقق حکمروایی مطلوب بهره‌برداری از ساختمان‌های مسکونی بلندمرتبه در ایران چیست؟ هدف نظری این مقاله، توسعۀ چهارچوب ادراکی و هدف کاربردی آن ارتقای ظرفیت‌های نهادی و اجرایی تحقق الگوی حکمروایی مطلوب در فرایند بهره‌برداری از بناهای مسکونی بلندمرتبه است. اطلاعات موردنیاز به «روش دلفی» و با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری شده است. جامعۀ آماری این پژوهش، اعضای هیئت علمی رشته‌-گرایش‌های شهرسازی (برنامه‌ریزی شهری)، معماری، جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری و مدیریت (شهری) 7 دانشگاه‌ تهران، تربیت ‌مدرس، شهید بهشتی، علم و صنعت، هنر، خوارزمی و علامه طباطبایی بوده ‌است. 15 نفر از این خبرگان که از سابقۀ علمی و اجرایی مناسب‌تری در حوزۀ مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، به‌ویژه مسکن برخوردار بوده‌اند به‌عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب شده‌اند. 9 نفر از این افراد در فرایند دلفی مشارکت کرده‌اند و در چهار دور به پرسش‌های این پژوهش پاسخ داده‌اند. این گروه درباره چهارچوب مفهومی و 5 معیار اصلی (اثربخشی، تساوی، مشارکت، پاسخگویی، امنیت) و 26 معیار فرعی حکمروایی مطلوب بناهای مسکونی بلندمرتبه در ایران به توافق رسیده‌اند. این چهارچوب و معیارها بر اساس سوابق و با تلفیق برخی مفاد قانون تملک آپارتمان‌ها و آیین‌نامۀ اجرایی آن، قوانین و استانداردهای فنی و تخصصی ملاک عمل و معیارهای حکمروایی خوب شهری موردنظر برنامۀ اسکان بشر سازمان ملل متحد تدوین شده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Conceptual Framework and Criteria of High-Rise Residential Buildings Governance in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moosa Kamanroodi Kojouri 1
  • Farzaneh Salehi 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Post-graduate Student, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Height is a common feature of all high-rise buildings. However, there is no consensus on the point or height of the distance between such buildings and medium and short buildings. These types of buildings have various scientific, artistic, technical, environmental, social, economic and managerial dimensions. In the construction and use of these buildings in Iran, more attention is paid to their technical, artistic, environmental and economic dimensions and less attention is paid to their cultural and managerial aspects. Also, the process of construction and use of such buildings in Iran is not done in an efficient participatory manner and using favorable governance models. These buildings in Iran are often managed with an administrative and managerial approach and with the aim of providing services to their users according to the "Apartment Ownership Law" and its executive regulations. Therefore, there is no theoretical or conceptual framework and specific criteria for evaluating, planning and developing participatory governance of this type of building in Iran. This research was conducted in response to the following basic question: “What is the conceptual framework and criteria for optimal governance of high-rise residential buildings in Iran?” The theoretical purpose of this research is to provide a conceptual framework and criteria and its practical purpose is to develop the management of high-rise buildings. In this study, the conceptual framework and governance criteria of high-rise residential buildings in the stage of their use were presented. These frameworks and criteria were designed and developed by combining the provisions of some articles of the "Apartment Ownership Law", specialized laws and standards, and the criteria of good urban governance considered by the United Nations Human Settlement Program, and approved by the relevant scientific elite. These frameworks and criteria can be used to design the optimal governance models for all high-rise buildings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • High-rise building
  • residential complex
  • apartment
  • government
  • management
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