ارزیابی گسترش شهری و تأثیر آن بر شکل‌گیری فقر شهری (مورد: شهر ارومیه)

نوع مقاله : مقالات مستقل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه مطالعات محیطی، پژوهشکده تحقیق و توسعه علوم انسانی (سمت)، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مطالعات محیطی، پژوهشکده تحقیق و توسعه علوم انسانی (سمت)،تهران، ایران

چکیده

در چند دهه اخیر شهر ارومیه به مانند دیگر شهرهای بزرگ ایران رشد شهری شتابان داشته است. یکی از مهم‌ترین اثرات این رشد شتابان گسترش سریع شهر ارومیه بوده است. بخش بزرگی از این گسترش توسط مهاجران مناطق روستایی بوده است که مشکلات مبدأ را نیز به همراه خود به شهر آورده‌اند. حال این تحقیق به دنبال اثبات این فرض است که بین گسترش شهری و شکل‌گیری خوشه‌های فقر رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. در رابطه با فقر شهری و تحلیل فضایی آن مطالعات زیادی انجام شده است، اما در ارتباط با گسترش شهر و ارتباط آن بر شکل‌گیری خوشه‌های فقر شهری مطالعات کمتری انجام شده است. ازاین‌رو این پژوهش با انتخاب شهر ارومیه به‌عنوان نمونه موردی در جستجوی ارزیابی رابطه گسترش شهر ارومیه و توزیع خوشه‌های فقر شهری است. در این پژوهش وضعیت فقر شهری در دوره‌های مختلف توسعۀ شهری در طول صد سال اخیر بررسی می‌شود. در این راستا، روش‌های مختلف برای تحلیل اثر گسترش شهری بر فقر شهری و تهیه اطلاعات مکانی مورد نیاز برای تصمیم‌گیری بهتر آمیخته شده است. در مرحله اول 21 شاخص در سه بعد اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی انتخاب و برای ارزیابی فقر شهری در سطح بلوک‌های آماری از یک روش پیشنهادی استفاده شده است. در نهایت گسترش شهر از سال 1311 تا 1401 در 8 دورۀ توسعه استخراج شده است و وضعیت فقر شهری در هر دورۀ توسعه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که خوشه‌های فقر شهری همگام با گسترش شهر شکل گرفته است. بیشترین افزایش فقر شهری در بعد کالبدی مربوط به دورۀ 1383تا 1401 با مقدار 21 درصد، در بعد اجتماعی با مقدار10 درصد در دورۀ 1366-1373و در بعد اقتصادی مربوط به دورۀ 1354- 1366 با مقدار 6 درصد بوده است. همچنین بیشترین افزایش شاخص کل فقر شهری با مقدار29 درصد مربوط به دورۀ 1401-1383 است. نتایج رگرسیون خطی نشان می‌دهد که بین گسترش شهری و شکل‌گیری خوشه‌های فقر شهری رابطه مستقیم وجود دارد و به‌طور کلی گسترش شهری 37 درصد از شکل‌گیری فقر شهری را تبیین می‌کند

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Urban Expansion and its Effect on the Formation of Urban Poverty (A case Study of Urmia city)

نویسندگان [English]

  • ayoub manouchehri 1
  • Majid Ramezani Mehrian 2
  • Mohammad Ali Ramezani 3
1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Humanities Research and Development (SAMT), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Research and Development of Human Sciences (SAMT), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Many studies have been conducted on urban poverty and its spatial analysis, but the expansion of the city and its effect on the creation of urban poverty clusters has not been given much attention. This research aims to evaluate the effect of the expansion of Urmia city on the formation of poverty clusters. In this regard, the situation of urban poverty in different periods of urban development during the last hundred years was analyzed. Various methods were combined to examine the effect of urban expansion on urban poverty and to provide spatial information needed for better decision-making. In the first step, 21 indicators covering the economic, social, and physical dimensions of urban poverty were selected. Then, a proposed method was used to evaluate urban poverty in study units (population blocks). In the last step, the expansion of the city from 1932 to 2022 was extracted in eight development periods and the urban poverty situation was evaluated in each period. The results show that with the expansion of the city, the relative size of poor urban areas has increased. The size of areas with physical poverty in Urmia city increased by 21% from 2004 to 2022, social poverty increased by 10% from 1994 to 1987, and economic poverty increased by 6% from 1987 to 1975. Additionally, the relative extent of poor urban areas has increased by 29% from 2004 to 2022. The results of linear regression also show that there is a direct relationship between urban expansion and the formation of urban poverty clusters. In general, urban expansion explains 37% of the formation of poor urban areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban expansion
  • poverty
  • spatial analysis
  • Urmia
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